Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - BPH - Urine Retention - Prostate Enlargement

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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-cancerous prostate gland enlargement that affects millions of men worldwide, especially those over 50 years of age. The prostate gland, a walnut-sized organ below the bladder, plays a crucial role in male reproductive function. As men age, the prostate gland naturally grows larger, which can result in urinary issues due to its proximity to the urethra. This article will discuss the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for BPH.

Causes of prostate enlargement 

The exact cause of BPH remains unclear, though hormonal changes associated with aging are considered a significant contributing factor. This section explores the potential causes of BPH in more detail.

Hormonal Changes and BPH

  • Testosterone and DHT: The growth of the prostate is influenced by testosterone and its byproduct, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). These hormones play a crucial role in developing and maintaining male sexual characteristics.
  • Decreased testosterone levels: As men age, their levels naturally decrease, leading to hormonal imbalances.
  • Consistent DHT levels: Despite the decrease in testosterone, DHT levels remain constant throughout aging. This consistency may contribute to the overgrowth of prostate cells.
  • Prostate cell overgrowth: The imbalance between testosterone and DHT levels may result in an overgrowth of prostate cells, which can cause the prostate gland to enlarge.

Other Possible Factors in BPH Development

While hormonal changes are believed to be a primary cause of BPH, other factors may also contribute to the development of the condition:

  • Genetics: A family history of BPH may predispose an individual to the condition.
  • Lifestyle factors: Obesity, poor diet, and lack of exercise can contribute to hormonal imbalances and may increase the risk of BPH.
  • Inflammation: Chronic inflammation within the prostate gland may contribute to prostate enlargement.
  • Cellular growth factors: Some studies suggest that increased cellular growth factors, which stimulate cell division, could also contribute to BPH development.


Risk Factors for BPH

Understanding the risk factors associated with BPH can help individuals take proactive measures to reduce their chances of developing the condition. Here, we delve into more detailed statistics and information about the primary risk factors for BPH.


  • Prevalence: BPH affects approximately 50% of men between the ages of 51-60 and up to 90% of men over 80.
  • Age-related factors: The risk of developing BPH increases as hormonal imbalances and prostate cell overgrowth become more likely.

Family history

  • Genetic predisposition: Men with a first-degree relative (father or brother) diagnosed with BPH are 2-3 times more likely to develop the condition.
  • Importance of screening: Early detection and monitoring are essential for individuals with a family history of BPH, as they may be at a higher risk.


  • African or Caribbean descent: Men of African or Caribbean descent have a higher prevalence of BPH, with studies estimating that 60% of African American men will develop BPH by age 60.
  • Asian descent: Men of Asian descent have a lower risk of BPH, with studies showing that Asian men have a BPH prevalence of 25-30% by age 60.


  • Hormonal imbalances: Excess body weight can lead to hormonal imbalances, as fat cells can convert testosterone into estrogen, further disrupting the balance between testosterone and DHT.
  • Weight loss benefits: Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight can significantly improve BPH symptoms.

Age, family history, ethnicity, and obesity are all risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing BPH. By understanding these factors, individuals can take proactive steps to mitigate their risk, such as maintaining a healthy lifestyle, monitoring their health, and undergoing regular screenings if they have a family history of BPH.



BPH can cause various urinary symptoms, including:

  1. Frequent urination, especially at night (nocturia)
  2. Difficulty starting urination (hesitancy)
  3. Weak urine stream or a stream that starts and stops
  4. Urgency to urinate
  5. Incomplete bladder emptying
  6. Dribbling of urine after urination
  7. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)



To diagnose BPH, a healthcare provider will first perform a thorough medical history and physical examination, including a digital rectal examination (DRE). Further diagnostic tests may include:

  1. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test: Elevated levels of PSA can indicate BPH, but they can also be a sign of prostate cancer.
  2. Urinalysis: This test checks for infection or blood in the urine.
  3. Uroflowmetry: This test measures the speed and volume of urine flow during urination.
  4. Post-void residual (PVR) volume test measures the amount of urine left in the bladder after urination.

Treatment Options

The treatment of BPH depends on the severity of symptoms and the impact on a patient's quality of life. Treatment options include:

  1. Watchful waiting: Regular monitoring without immediate intervention may be recommended for men with mild symptoms.
  2. Medications: Alpha-blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors can help relieve symptoms by relaxing the prostate and bladder neck muscles or shrinking the prostate gland.
  3. Minimally invasive procedures: Transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT), transurethral needle ablation (TUNA), and prostatic urethral lift (PUL) are minimally invasive options for patients with moderate to severe symptoms.
  4. Surgery: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), holmium laser enucleation (HoLEP), and simple prostatectomy are surgical options for men with severe symptoms or complications from BPH.



Although the exact cause of BPH is still unknown, hormonal changes associated with aging, particularly the balance between testosterone and DHT, appear to play a significant role. Other factors, such as genetics, lifestyle, inflammation, and cellular growth factors, may also contribute to the development of the condition. Understanding these factors can help researchers develop more effective prevention and treatment strategies for BPH.

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