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      Leg Cramps, Muscle Spasms: Definition, Causes, Treatment, Prevention.

      ARTICLE IS UNDER DEVELOPMENT.

       

       

      Muscle cramps are sudden, painful contractions of one or more muscles. They are involuntary, and they affect the mobility of the involved limb.

      Leg cramps, mainly the calf muscle, is the most affected. In many cases, spasm is harmless, and last only from a few seconds to several minutes.



      This is a fairly common condition. Most people experience it during their lifetime.

      It occurs more frequently in the young generation, especially athletes that overuse their muscles during competitive sports.

      Older people experience muscle cramps also, due to weakened muscles that cannot keep up with the requirements of daily life activities.





      However, you can develop muscle cramps at any age, especially if it results from a secondary health condition.

      The causes of leg cramps are not always known, but dehydration or overuse of the muscle can lead to this condition.

      Weather factors play a role. Too hot or too cold temperatures increase the chances of developing cramps.






      some muscle spasms may be related to an underlying medical condition, such as:

      Electrolyte or vitamins deficiency.

      vessels obstruction.

      diabetes,
      thyroid dysfunction,
      or low blood sugar.





      Muscle spasms can also be the side effect of some medications,
      like statins, medicines used to lower cholesterol levels.
      antipsychotics,
      diuretics and birth control pills.

      Too much caffeine or alcohol can be factors for muscle cramps.

      If your leg spasms wake you up at night, this condition is called nocturnal leg cramps. Such a condition is more often linked to the nervous system, and not vessels obstruction.







      To stop leg cramps immediately, you should forcefully stretch the affected muscle, which will normally promote rapid relief.

      Cold pads, or warm pads can reduce the severity of pain.
      A warm bath promotes relaxation of the muscles.
      A gentle rub can also provide relief.






      after the cramp occurs, you can implement some of the following measures to prevent this condition from happening again:

      Drink enough water to be adequately hydrated.

      Limit the intake of alcohol and caffeine.






      Consuming enough protein, is vital for the muscle tissues to repair themselves properly.

      Eat a healthy diet, or supplements to replace a deficiency in calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Bananas are rich in some of these minerals.

      Some studies, showed a particular benefit of vitamin B6, in reducing the occurrence of leg cramps of unknown causes.





      To prevent muscle cramps from happening during an activity, take the time to stretch and warm up the targeted muscle group, then gradually increase the activity, and remain well hydrated all the time.

      To treat Muscle cramps with a known cause, we should treat the underlying problem first to resolve the recurring muscle spams.




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      What is tinnitus? Causes, diagnosis and treatments.

      What is tinnitus? Causes, diagnosis and treatments.

       

      What is tinnitus? Causes, diagnosis and treatments.

       


      That sound happens without any external source being present.

      This condition is rarely a serious health problem, but one in five affected people has severe tinnitus, that interferes with their daily activities.

      Do you remember experiencing this sound?

      Almost everyone has had tinnitus for a short time after being exposed to extremely loud noise.

      It often gets resolved within a few seconds.

      Tinnitus can happen to one, or both ears at the same time.

      It can vary in intensity.

      some people experience it for more than six months, and this is known as chronic tinnitus.

      About 50 to 60 million people in the United States suffer from chronic tinnitus, more men than women have this medical condition.

      Tinnitus is often the result of damage to the sensory cells in the auditory system.

      Normal aging is a known cause of tinnitus. Other causes include:

      Side effects of medications.

      secondary illnesses.

      Severe anxiety can also cause tinnitus.

      In most cases, The cause of tinnitus remains unknown.

      Your doctor will perform a hearing test, and try to determine if an underlying illness is associated with this condition.

      MRI, and CT scans are also used to help to determine the cause.

      There is no cure for tinnitus, but you may get a relief treatment.

      In chronic cases, the person can receive a cochlear implant which helps to improve hearing.

      Thank you for joining us in another video covering health-related topics with medical arts officials.

      Subscribe to support our channel, like and share with your friends.

      Leave your comment below about your thoughts, questions, or suggestions.

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      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      In a normal situation when you eat a meal your digestive system will break down sugar into a simple form called glucose. Glucose is the main form of energy for our body.

      From the digestive system, glucose gets absorbed into the blood.

      As a result of increased blood glucose levels the beta cells of the pancreas secrete a hormone called insulin.

      The role of insulin is to escort the glucose from the blood vessels into the cells to produce energy.

      Insulin will bind to specific receptors found on the cells this reaction allows the entry of blood glucose into the cells.

      In Type 1 diabetes,
      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      An autoimmune reaction leads to the destruction of beta cells of the pancreas.

      Fewer beta cells mean less secretion of insulin and Less insulin is available to bind to the receptors of the cells this Results in less glucose entering the cells.

      This condition is treated mainly by injections of insulin.

      Type 2 diabetes,

      is caused by a condition called insulin resistance that is when the insulin bind to the receptors, but The cells ignore the insulin. Therefore, glucose cannot enter the cells. The causes of this condition are not well known. Insulin resistance may be reversed with increased physical activity, weight loss, and getting enough sleep.

      In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, glucose stays in the blood for longer than usual, causing abnormally elevated blood glucose levels, also called hyperglycemia.

      The combination of high blood glucose, and a low supply of energy to the cells. are responsible for the signs and symptoms of diabetes, also for the short and long-term complications.

      diabetes type 1 and type 2 Simplified explanation of causes and pathophysiology

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      accessory structures and organs of the digestive system. Liver, pancreas gallbladder salivary glands

      accessory structures and organs of the digestive system. Liver, pancreas gallbladder salivary glands
      We are going to explore the accessory structures that connect to our digestive system. Please note that This is a continuation of our previous video, titled “GI tract.” Which makes up the other component of our digestive system.



      There are Three accessory structures in the oral cavity: the teeth, salivary glands, and tongue.
      And Three other accessory organs in the abdominal cavity connect to the first segment of the small intestine. They are the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.


      In the oral cavity, mechanical digestion of the ingested food starts with mastication achieved by teeth which change the structure of the food to become a bolus. The chemical reaction that occurs via enzymes in the saliva contributes to this transformation also. A 3rd structure is a tongue, which assists in the formation and mostly in swallowing the bolus.


      Teeth are collectively called dentition.
      Generally, at the age of 17, we have Thirty-two permanent teeth arranged in a predictable sequence.
      Human teeth include variation and are called incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
      Teeth decay is one of the most common diseases. The rate of tooth decay decreases after age 35. However, then problems with the gums may develop.




      Tongue is formed from skeletal muscle. It manipulates the food to assist in chewing and forming the bolus by compressing the partly digested materials.
      thousands of chemoreceptors on the surface of the tongue recognize the variety of tastes like salty, sour, bitter, sweet, savory





      The salivary glands are three pairs of structures that secrete their saliva via linked ducts to the oral cavity.
      The parotid glands are located in front of the ears produce watery serous liquid carrying salts and enzymes. Secrete about 25-30% of the saliva.
      The SUBMANDIBULAR glands, also called SUBMAXILLARY, located below the jaw secrete watery serous fluid with some mucus. Produce most of the saliva about 60-70%.
      The sublingual glands are located under the tongue secrete thick, sticky mucus and contain salts and salivary amylase. Contribute only about 3-5% of the total saliva.




      Saliva is 99% composed of water. A small amount of it is continuously produced to ensure that the oral cavity and its structures remain moist and clean.
      Other components in saliva are
      enzymes such as amylase, which breaks down complex carbohydrates.
      Bicarbonate found in saliva helps to maintain a neutral PH.
      Lysozyme and antibodies kill bacteria.
      Other substances are also found, such as electrolytes and MUCIN.



      Three Accessory digestive organs assist in the chemical breakdown of food by secreting their enzymes into the first segment of the small intestine, the duodenum.
      The liver produces and releases its bile into the gallbladder by multiple thin tubes.
      Then the concentrated bile in the gallbladder gets carried through the common bile duct, where it meets the pancreatic duct. These two tubes form the ampulla of Vater.



      The liver is located Underneath the diaphragm.
      It is composed of four lobes, the left, and right, then two other lobes that are found at the inferior angle of the liver are the caudate and the quadrate lobes.
      It receives nutrient-rich blood from the guts via the portal vein makes 75-85% of the blood flow to the liver. The remaining blood flow is supplied by the Hepatic artery.


      The liver carries one of the most diverse functions in our body, ACTS as a gland. It also detoxifies the blood, serves as storage, and contributes to the immune system.
      The liver will be discussed in detail in another video. Today We will focus on its role in the digestive system.
      The liver itself is not necessarily a gland. However, part of its tissues is exocrine glands, which secrete their substances in a cavity. In the case of the liver, it produces and releases its bile in the gallbladder.




      The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac, about 4 inches long.
      The liver drains its bile into the hepatic ducts toward the gallbladder. Concentrated bile of approximately 40 to 60ml is on standby for the next fatty meal.
      After a meal, the gallbladder squeezes the stored bile into the intestine to digest fat and enhance the absorption of liposoluble vitamins.




      Cholecystectomy is a surgical operation consist of the removal of the gallbladder.
      In a post-cholecystectomy, Instead of concentrating the bile in the gallbladder, the bile flows directly into the intestine anytime the liver produces it.
      Not as much bile will be secreted after ingesting a meal, but enough to allow digestion.




      The pancreas is a soft 6 inches long organ situated behind the stomach and is connected by a duct to the duodenum.
      It is divided into four parts, the head, neck, body, and tail.
      Similar to the liver, the pancreas performs both functions as endocrine and exocrine secretions. The exocrine cells occupy the majority of the pancreas. They serve digestion by secreting enzymes such as lipase, trypsin, and amylase. Bicarbonate is also produced and released by the pancreas. The secretions are collectively called pancreatic juice.

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      GI tract anatomy and physiology, 3d, gut bacteria, digestive system components, function and process

      GI tract anatomy and physiology, 3d, gut bacteria, digestive system components, function and process

      Gastro Intestinal tract anatomy and physiology, 3D footage, detailed illustrations. What are the two main parts of the digestive system? What is the alimentary canal? What are the accessory structures of the digestive system? How does the digestive system work? What are the functions of the digestive system? What are the steps of the digestive system? What are the functions of the mouth ? stomach? and intestine? What path do food, water and medications follow in the GI tract? What is the digestive process? What structures / organs make up the digestive system? Which part of the digestive system are water and alcohol absorbed? What is a capsule endoscopy of the GI tract? What is the GI/Gastrointestinal tract? In this video, the digestive system is explained & it includes : Digestive system diagrams "labeled" Digestive system 3d footage Individual illustrations of digestive system organs

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