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      Cardiac System - Cardiac Cycle

      Cardiac System - Cardiac Cycle

      How is the circulatory system structured ?

      What are the components of the circulatory system?

      What is the cardiovascular system ?

      Where is the heart located?

      What vessels drain blood in the right atrium?

      What valve is situated between the right atrium and the right ventricle?

      What is the function of the valve?

      What keeps the valves intact in place?

      Where does the right ventricle receive blood from? and where does it pump it to?

      What are the pulmonary circuits / circulation?

      What is the role of the left atrium?

      What valve is situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle?

      What is the role of the left ventricle?

      How important is the role of the left ventricle?

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      CABG - Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

      CABG - Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

      Coronary artery bypass surgery also called coronary artery bypass grafting or (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat coronary Artery disease.

      The coronary arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood to your heart. The blood in these arteries supplies oxygen and nutrients to your heart.

      There are two coronary arteries: a left and a right coronary artery, each of which is further divided into fine branches.

      Healthy coronary arteries are smooth and elastic. However, these arteries, can become narrowed and hardened over time due to the buildup of fatty deposits known as plaques. This process is known as atherosclerosis.

      People with atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries are said to have coronary artery disease (CAD).

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      Leg Cramps, Muscle Spasms: Definition, Causes, Treatment, Prevention.

      Leg Cramps, Muscle Spasms: Definition, Causes, Treatment, Prevention.

      Muscle cramps are sudden, painful contractions of one or more muscles. They are involuntary, and they affect the mobility of the involved limb.

      Leg cramps, mainly the calf muscle, is the most affected. In many cases, spasm is harmless, and last only from a few seconds to several minutes.



      This is a fairly common condition. Most people experience it during their lifetime.

      It occurs more frequently in the young generation, especially athletes that overuse their muscles during competitive sports.

      Older people experience muscle cramps also, due to weakened muscles that cannot keep up with the requirements of daily life activities.


      However, you can develop muscle cramps at any age, especially if it results from a secondary health condition.

      The causes of leg cramps are not always known, but dehydration or overuse of the muscle can lead to this condition.

      Weather factors play a role. Too hot or too cold temperatures increase the chances of developing cramps.

      some muscle spasms may be related to an underlying medical condition, such as:

      Electrolyte or vitamins deficiency.

      vessels obstruction.

      diabetes,
      thyroid dysfunction,
      or low blood sugar.


      Muscle spasms can also be the side effect of some medications,
      like statins, medicines used to lower cholesterol levels.
      antipsychotics,
      diuretics and birth control pills.

      Too much caffeine or alcohol can be factors for muscle cramps.

      If your leg spasms wake you up at night, this condition is called nocturnal leg cramps. Such a condition is more often linked to the nervous system, and not vessels obstruction.


      To stop leg cramps immediately, you should forcefully stretch the affected muscle, which will normally promote rapid relief.

      Cold pads, or warm pads can reduce the severity of pain.
      A warm bath promotes relaxation of the muscles.
      A gentle rub can also provide relief.

      after the cramp occurs, you can implement some of the following measures to prevent this condition from happening again:

      Drink enough water to be adequately hydrated.

      Limit the intake of alcohol and caffeine.


      Consuming enough protein, is vital for the muscle tissues to repair themselves properly.

      Eat a healthy diet, or supplements to replace a deficiency in calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Bananas are rich in some of these minerals.

      Some studies, showed a particular benefit of vitamin B6, in reducing the occurrence of leg cramps of unknown causes.


      To prevent muscle cramps from happening during an activity, take the time to stretch and warm up the targeted muscle group, then gradually increase the activity, and remain well hydrated all the time.

      To treat Muscle cramps with a known cause, we should treat the underlying problem first to resolve the recurring muscle spams.





      What is tinnitus? Causes, diagnosis and treatments.

      What is tinnitus? Causes, diagnosis and treatments.

       

      What is tinnitus? Causes, diagnosis and treatments.

       


      That sound happens without any external source being present.

      This condition is rarely a serious health problem, but one in five affected people has severe tinnitus, that interferes with their daily activities.

      Do you remember experiencing this sound?

      Almost everyone has had tinnitus for a short time after being exposed to extremely loud noise.

      It often gets resolved within a few seconds.

      Tinnitus can happen to one, or both ears at the same time.

      It can vary in intensity.

      some people experience it for more than six months, and this is known as chronic tinnitus.

      About 50 to 60 million people in the United States suffer from chronic tinnitus, more men than women have this medical condition.

      Tinnitus is often the result of damage to the sensory cells in the auditory system.

      Normal aging is a known cause of tinnitus. Other causes include:

      Side effects of medications.

      secondary illnesses.

      Severe anxiety can also cause tinnitus.

      In most cases, The cause of tinnitus remains unknown.

      Your doctor will perform a hearing test, and try to determine if an underlying illness is associated with this condition.

      MRI, and CT scans are also used to help to determine the cause.

      There is no cure for tinnitus, but you may get a relief treatment.

      In chronic cases, the person can receive a cochlear implant which helps to improve hearing.

      Thank you for joining us in another video covering health-related topics with medical arts officials.

      Subscribe to support our channel, like and share with your friends.

      Leave your comment below about your thoughts, questions, or suggestions.

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      Diabetes Difference Between Type1 and type 2 - Pathophysiology of diabetes.

      diabetes type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology

      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      In a normal situation when you eat a meal your digestive system will break down sugar into a simple form called glucose. Glucose is the main form of energy for our body.

      From the digestive system, glucose gets absorbed into the blood.

      As a result of increased blood glucose levels the beta cells of the pancreas secrete a hormone called insulin.

      The role of insulin is to escort the glucose from the blood vessels into the cells to produce energy.

      Insulin will bind to specific receptors found on the cells this reaction allows the entry of blood glucose into the cells.

      In Type 1 diabetes,
      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      An autoimmune reaction leads to the destruction of beta cells of the pancreas.

      Fewer beta cells mean less secretion of insulin and Less insulin is available to bind to the receptors of the cells this Results in less glucose entering the cells.

      This condition is treated mainly by injections of insulin.

      Type 2 diabetes,

      is caused by a condition called insulin resistance that is when the insulin bind to the receptors, but The cells ignore the insulin. Therefore, glucose cannot enter the cells. The causes of this condition are not well known. Insulin resistance may be reversed with increased physical activity, weight loss, and getting enough sleep.

      In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, glucose stays in the blood for longer than usual, causing abnormally elevated blood glucose levels, also called hyperglycemia.

      The combination of high blood glucose, and a low supply of energy to the cells. are responsible for the signs and symptoms of diabetes, also for the short and long-term complications.

      diabetes type 1 and type 2 Simplified explanation of causes and pathophysiology

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