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      Medical and nursing topics — health education

      CABG - Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

      CABG - Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

      Coronary artery bypass surgery also called coronary artery bypass grafting or (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat coronary Artery disease.

      The coronary arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood to your heart. The blood in these arteries supplies oxygen and nutrients to your heart.

      There are two coronary arteries: a left and a right coronary artery, each of which is further divided into fine branches.

      Healthy coronary arteries are smooth and elastic. However, these arteries, can become narrowed and hardened over time due to the buildup of fatty deposits known as plaques. This process is known as atherosclerosis.

      People with atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries are said to have coronary artery disease (CAD).

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      Kidney Transplant: What, Why and how.

      Kidney Transplant: What, Why and how.



      Among all types of transplantation, Kidney transplants are the most common.

      A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure in which a diseased kidney is replaced with a healthy kidney from a donor.

      The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located just below the rib cage on each side of the spine.

      Each kidney is roughly the size of a fist.

      The kidneys filter waste from the blood and remove it from the body through your urine.

      They also help maintain your body's fluid and electrolyte balance.

      When your kidneys lose their filtering ability, harmful levels of fluid and waste accumulate in your body, which can raise your blood pressure and result in kidney failure called End-stage Renal disease (ESRD).

      End-stage renal disease occurs when the kidneys have lost about 90% of their ability to function normally.

      A kidney transplant can help you avoid long-term reliance on dialysis. In comparison to dialysis, this can allow you to live a more active life.

      Common causes of Kidney failure include.
      Diabetes. Uncontrolled high blood pressure. Glomerulonephritis, which is inflammation of the kidney's filtering units. Polycystic kidney disease. and Repeated urinary infections

      People whose kidneys have failed usually undergo a treatment called dialysis.

      This treatment mechanically filters waste that builds up in the bloodstream when the kidneys stop working. But Some people, whose kidneys have failed may qualify for a kidney transplant.

      A kidney transplant can help you avoid long-term reliance on dialysis. In comparison to dialysis, this can allow you to live a more active life. However, kidney transplants aren't suitable for everyone. This includes people with:
      Old age. Severe heart disease. Active or recently treated cancer. And Suffering from serious infections, such as tuberculosis. Bone infections. or hepatitis.

      Who can donate the kidney?
      Kidneys for transplantation come from two different sources. A living donor or a deceased donor.

      Living donors.
      A person getting a transplant most often gets just one kidney. Because the body can function perfectly well with just one healthy kidney, a family member with two healthy kidneys may choose to donate one of theirs to you. That person is called a living donor.

      Receiving a kidney from a family member is a good option. It reduces the risk that your body will reject the kidney.
      Deceased donors.

      Deceased donors are people who have died, usually as the result of an accident rather than a disease. Either the donor or their family has chosen to donate their organs and tissues. Your body is more likely to reject a kidney from an unrelated donor.

      Regardless of whether the kidney transplant is from a living or deceased donor. Special blood tests such as blood group, cross match, microbial infections, and tissue typing tests are required to match a donor kidney to the recipient.

      So let us see what happens during the surgery.
      Once all the tests are clear and the donor's kidney is ready for transplant, the procedure of transplantation started. A kidney transplant is done under general anesthesia. This involves giving you a medication that puts you to sleep during the surgery. The anesthetic will be injected into your body through an intravenous (IV) line in your hand or arm.

      A tube will be inserted through your mouth, into your lungs. The tube will be attached to a ventilator that will breathe for you during the procedure. The surgical team monitors your heart rate, blood pressure, and blood oxygen level throughout the procedure.

      Once you're asleep, your doctor makes an incision in your abdomen and places the donor kidney inside. The operation usually takes 2-4 hours. This type of operation is a heterotopic transplant, meaning the kidney is placed in a different location than the existing kidneys. Usually, A left donor kidney will be implanted on your right side; a right donor kidney will be implanted on your left side. This allows the ureter to be accessed easily for connection to your bladder.

      The incision will be closed with stitches or surgical staples.
      After the procedure.

      If your kidney transplant is successful, your new kidney will filter your blood, and you will no longer need dialysis. However, you will spend several days to a week in the hospital, where doctors and nurses will check your condition.

      You will be given a number of medications, including. Immunosuppressants, which help prevent your immune system from attacking and rejecting your new kidney.

      The average lifespan of a transplanted kidney is 12-15 years, though some transplants will last longer.

      Sore Throat Causes, Laryngitis, Pharyngitis, Tonsillitis, Virus, Bacteria, Traumatic. Animation 4k.

      Sore Throat Causes, Laryngitis, Pharyngitis, Tonsillitis, Virus, Bacteria, Traumatic. Animation 4k.
      Sore throat is usually the result of an inflammation in the back of the throat.

      Based on the affected region, a medical term is given. For example, an inflammation of the pharynx is called pharyngitis.

      Inflammation of the larynx where the vocal cords are located is called laryngitis,

      and finally, tonsillitis is the inflammation of the tonsils.

      An infection is usually the cause of this inflammation. 90% of these cases in adults are caused by a virus, such as an adenovirus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, and coronavirus.

      A viral infection can happen any time of the year, unlike bacterial infections that occur more often during winter.

      Streptococcus infection is often the cause of bacterial infection. This infection is much more common in kids until the age of 17 years old.

      Not all sore throats are the result of an infection.
      In some cases, it is caused by acid reflux,
      This refers to the condition in which the partially digested food containing digestive juices travels back into the esophagus from the stomach.

      Acid reflux is typically associated with the sensation of a lump in the throat, a cough, hoarse voice, and those signs are sometimes preceded by indigestion, heartburn, or hiccups.

      Allergy is another cause of irritated throats.

      Often it is due to pets or pollens.

      Such a condition may manifest additional signs and symptoms, including.

      Coughing, itchy face or body.
      Frequent swallowing, difficulty speaking,
      and a swollen tongue.

      And finally, a traumatic lesion of the throat may produce pain.

      This lesion can be caused by the voluntary or involuntary swallowing of a fishbone or other sharp food particles.

      This condition may be relieved by ingesting two tablespoons of olive oil.

      This may help the object slide down and get digested in the stomach.

      Persistent or worsening sore throat should not be ignored, as it may signal a complication such as an infection or perforation of the esophagus.

      Other factors can cause sore throats, like a tumor of the throat, talking for a prolonged period of time, exposure to pollution, or irritants like smoke. and Alcohol consumption.

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      Leg Cramps, Muscle Spasms: Definition, Causes, Treatment, Prevention.

      Leg Cramps, Muscle Spasms: Definition, Causes, Treatment, Prevention.

      Muscle cramps are sudden, painful contractions of one or more muscles. They are involuntary, and they affect the mobility of the involved limb.

      Leg cramps, mainly the calf muscle, is the most affected. In many cases, spasm is harmless, and last only from a few seconds to several minutes.

      This is a fairly common condition. Most people experience it during their lifetime.

      It occurs more frequently in the young generation, especially athletes that overuse their muscles during competitive sports.

      Older people experience muscle cramps also, due to weakened muscles that cannot keep up with the requirements of daily life activities.

      However, you can develop muscle cramps at any age, especially if it results from a secondary health condition.

      The causes of leg cramps are not always known, but dehydration or overuse of the muscle can lead to this condition.

      Weather factors play a role. Too hot or too cold temperatures increase the chances of developing cramps.

      some muscle spasms may be related to an underlying medical condition, such as:

      Electrolyte or vitamins deficiency.

      vessels obstruction.

      thyroid dysfunction,
      or low blood sugar.

      Muscle spasms can also be the side effect of some medications,
      like statins, medicines used to lower cholesterol levels.
      diuretics and birth control pills.

      Too much caffeine or alcohol can be factors for muscle cramps.

      If your leg spasms wake you up at night, this condition is called nocturnal leg cramps. Such a condition is more often linked to the nervous system, and not vessels obstruction.

      To stop leg cramps immediately, you should forcefully stretch the affected muscle, which will normally promote rapid relief.

      Cold pads, or warm pads can reduce the severity of pain.
      A warm bath promotes relaxation of the muscles.
      A gentle rub can also provide relief.

      after the cramp occurs, you can implement some of the following measures to prevent this condition from happening again:

      Drink enough water to be adequately hydrated.

      Limit the intake of alcohol and caffeine.

      Consuming enough protein, is vital for the muscle tissues to repair themselves properly.

      Eat a healthy diet, or supplements to replace a deficiency in calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Bananas are rich in some of these minerals.

      Some studies, showed a particular benefit of vitamin B6, in reducing the occurrence of leg cramps of unknown causes.

      To prevent muscle cramps from happening during an activity, take the time to stretch and warm up the targeted muscle group, then gradually increase the activity, and remain well hydrated all the time.

      To treat Muscle cramps with a known cause, we should treat the underlying problem first to resolve the recurring muscle spams.

      What is tinnitus? Causes, diagnosis and treatments.

      What is tinnitus? Causes, diagnosis and treatments.


      What is tinnitus? Causes, diagnosis and treatments.


      That sound happens without any external source being present.

      This condition is rarely a serious health problem, but one in five affected people has severe tinnitus, that interferes with their daily activities.

      Do you remember experiencing this sound?

      Almost everyone has had tinnitus for a short time after being exposed to extremely loud noise.

      It often gets resolved within a few seconds.

      Tinnitus can happen to one, or both ears at the same time.

      It can vary in intensity.

      some people experience it for more than six months, and this is known as chronic tinnitus.

      About 50 to 60 million people in the United States suffer from chronic tinnitus, more men than women have this medical condition.

      Tinnitus is often the result of damage to the sensory cells in the auditory system.

      Normal aging is a known cause of tinnitus. Other causes include:

      Side effects of medications.

      secondary illnesses.

      Severe anxiety can also cause tinnitus.

      In most cases, The cause of tinnitus remains unknown.

      Your doctor will perform a hearing test, and try to determine if an underlying illness is associated with this condition.

      MRI, and CT scans are also used to help to determine the cause.

      There is no cure for tinnitus, but you may get a relief treatment.

      In chronic cases, the person can receive a cochlear implant which helps to improve hearing.

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