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      Medical and nursing topics — health education

      Home Remedy For A Sore Throat - A Natural Cure For Sore Throat

      Home Remedy For A Sore Throat - A Natural Cure For Sore Throat


      Significant throat pain can be soothed by proper hydration with frozen or warm fluids. It is better to avoid room temperature or lightly refrigerated liquids. 

      One of the most accessible items to treat throat pain is ice. Ingesting ice helps to numb the aching tissues, decrease swelling, and keep the affected area hydrated. 



      Humidifying the environment to avoid excessive dryness can be achieved through humidifiers, which need to be cleaned regularly to avoid spreading harmful mold or bacteria. 

      Humidification can also be achieved by running a few minutes in a closed bathroom with a warm shower and repeating that several times a day.

      Inhaling water vapor by using vapor generating machines or vapor of boiling water can shorten the period of tissue inflammation in the throat and provide immediate relief to itching.

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      Cardiac System - Cardiac Cycle

      Cardiac System - Cardiac Cycle

      How is the circulatory system structured ?

      What are the components of the circulatory system?

      What is the cardiovascular system ?

      Where is the heart located?

      What vessels drain blood in the right atrium?

      What valve is situated between the right atrium and the right ventricle?

      What is the function of the valve?

      What keeps the valves intact in place?

      Where does the right ventricle receive blood from? and where does it pump it to?

      What are the pulmonary circuits / circulation?

      What is the role of the left atrium?

      What valve is situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle?

      What is the role of the left ventricle?

      How important is the role of the left ventricle?

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      Monkeypox: Definition, Signs & Symptoms, High Risk Population, Diagnosis, Treatment and Preventions.

      Monkeypox: Definition, Signs & Symptoms, High Risk Population, Diagnosis, Treatment and Preventions.
      What is Monkeypox? How serious is it? Who catches monkeypox? How does it spread? Who is the higher risk population? Is there a treatment for monkeypox? Do we have a vaccine against monkeypox? What is the difference between monkeypox and smallpox? Monkeypox is an infectious disease caused by a DNA virus

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      CABG - Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

      CABG - Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

      Coronary artery bypass surgery also called coronary artery bypass grafting or (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat coronary Artery disease.

      The coronary arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood to your heart. The blood in these arteries supplies oxygen and nutrients to your heart.

      There are two coronary arteries: a left and a right coronary artery, each of which is further divided into fine branches.

      Healthy coronary arteries are smooth and elastic. However, these arteries, can become narrowed and hardened over time due to the buildup of fatty deposits known as plaques. This process is known as atherosclerosis.

      People with atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries are said to have coronary artery disease (CAD).

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      Kidney Transplant: What, Why and how.

      Kidney Transplant: What, Why and how.



      Among all types of transplantation, Kidney transplants are the most common.

      A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure in which a diseased kidney is replaced with a healthy kidney from a donor.

      The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located just below the rib cage on each side of the spine.

      Each kidney is roughly the size of a fist.

      The kidneys filter waste from the blood and remove it from the body through your urine.

      They also help maintain your body's fluid and electrolyte balance.

      When your kidneys lose their filtering ability, harmful levels of fluid and waste accumulate in your body, which can raise your blood pressure and result in kidney failure called End-stage Renal disease (ESRD).

      End-stage renal disease occurs when the kidneys have lost about 90% of their ability to function normally.

      A kidney transplant can help you avoid long-term reliance on dialysis. In comparison to dialysis, this can allow you to live a more active life.

      Common causes of Kidney failure include.
      Diabetes. Uncontrolled high blood pressure. Glomerulonephritis, which is inflammation of the kidney's filtering units. Polycystic kidney disease. and Repeated urinary infections

      People whose kidneys have failed usually undergo a treatment called dialysis.

      This treatment mechanically filters waste that builds up in the bloodstream when the kidneys stop working. But Some people, whose kidneys have failed may qualify for a kidney transplant.

      A kidney transplant can help you avoid long-term reliance on dialysis. In comparison to dialysis, this can allow you to live a more active life. However, kidney transplants aren't suitable for everyone. This includes people with:
      Old age. Severe heart disease. Active or recently treated cancer. And Suffering from serious infections, such as tuberculosis. Bone infections. or hepatitis.

      Who can donate the kidney?
      Kidneys for transplantation come from two different sources. A living donor or a deceased donor.

      Living donors.
      A person getting a transplant most often gets just one kidney. Because the body can function perfectly well with just one healthy kidney, a family member with two healthy kidneys may choose to donate one of theirs to you. That person is called a living donor.

      Receiving a kidney from a family member is a good option. It reduces the risk that your body will reject the kidney.
      Deceased donors.

      Deceased donors are people who have died, usually as the result of an accident rather than a disease. Either the donor or their family has chosen to donate their organs and tissues. Your body is more likely to reject a kidney from an unrelated donor.

      Regardless of whether the kidney transplant is from a living or deceased donor. Special blood tests such as blood group, cross match, microbial infections, and tissue typing tests are required to match a donor kidney to the recipient.

      So let us see what happens during the surgery.
      Once all the tests are clear and the donor's kidney is ready for transplant, the procedure of transplantation started. A kidney transplant is done under general anesthesia. This involves giving you a medication that puts you to sleep during the surgery. The anesthetic will be injected into your body through an intravenous (IV) line in your hand or arm.

      A tube will be inserted through your mouth, into your lungs. The tube will be attached to a ventilator that will breathe for you during the procedure. The surgical team monitors your heart rate, blood pressure, and blood oxygen level throughout the procedure.

      Once you're asleep, your doctor makes an incision in your abdomen and places the donor kidney inside. The operation usually takes 2-4 hours. This type of operation is a heterotopic transplant, meaning the kidney is placed in a different location than the existing kidneys. Usually, A left donor kidney will be implanted on your right side; a right donor kidney will be implanted on your left side. This allows the ureter to be accessed easily for connection to your bladder.

      The incision will be closed with stitches or surgical staples.
      After the procedure.

      If your kidney transplant is successful, your new kidney will filter your blood, and you will no longer need dialysis. However, you will spend several days to a week in the hospital, where doctors and nurses will check your condition.

      You will be given a number of medications, including. Immunosuppressants, which help prevent your immune system from attacking and rejecting your new kidney.

      The average lifespan of a transplanted kidney is 12-15 years, though some transplants will last longer.