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      Medical and nursing topics — health education

      Sore Throat Causes, Laryngitis, Pharyngitis, Tonsillitis, Virus, Bacteria, Traumatic. Animation 4k.

      Sore Throat Causes, Laryngitis, Pharyngitis, Tonsillitis, Virus, Bacteria, Traumatic. Animation 4k.
      Sore throat is usually the result of an inflammation in the back of the throat.

      Based on the affected region, a medical term is given. For example, an inflammation of the pharynx is called pharyngitis.

      Inflammation of the larynx where the vocal cords are located is called laryngitis,

      and finally, tonsillitis is the inflammation of the tonsils.

      An infection is usually the cause of this inflammation. 90% of these cases in adults are caused by a virus, such as an adenovirus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, and coronavirus.

      A viral infection can happen any time of the year, unlike bacterial infections that occur more often during winter.

      Streptococcus infection is often the cause of bacterial infection. This infection is much more common in kids until the age of 17 years old.



      Not all sore throats are the result of an infection.
      In some cases, it is caused by acid reflux,
      This refers to the condition in which the partially digested food containing digestive juices travels back into the esophagus from the stomach.

      Acid reflux is typically associated with the sensation of a lump in the throat, a cough, hoarse voice, and those signs are sometimes preceded by indigestion, heartburn, or hiccups.


      Allergy is another cause of irritated throats.

      Often it is due to pets or pollens.

      Such a condition may manifest additional signs and symptoms, including.

      Coughing, itchy face or body.
      Frequent swallowing, difficulty speaking,
      and a swollen tongue.


      And finally, a traumatic lesion of the throat may produce pain.

      This lesion can be caused by the voluntary or involuntary swallowing of a fishbone or other sharp food particles.

      This condition may be relieved by ingesting two tablespoons of olive oil.

      This may help the object slide down and get digested in the stomach.

      Persistent or worsening sore throat should not be ignored, as it may signal a complication such as an infection or perforation of the esophagus.

      Other factors can cause sore throats, like a tumor of the throat, talking for a prolonged period of time, exposure to pollution, or irritants like smoke. and Alcohol consumption.

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      Leg Cramps, Muscle Spasms: Definition, Causes, Treatment, Prevention.

      ARTICLE IS UNDER DEVELOPMENT.

       

       

      Muscle cramps are sudden, painful contractions of one or more muscles. They are involuntary, and they affect the mobility of the involved limb.

      Leg cramps, mainly the calf muscle, is the most affected. In many cases, spasm is harmless, and last only from a few seconds to several minutes.



      This is a fairly common condition. Most people experience it during their lifetime.

      It occurs more frequently in the young generation, especially athletes that overuse their muscles during competitive sports.

      Older people experience muscle cramps also, due to weakened muscles that cannot keep up with the requirements of daily life activities.





      However, you can develop muscle cramps at any age, especially if it results from a secondary health condition.

      The causes of leg cramps are not always known, but dehydration or overuse of the muscle can lead to this condition.

      Weather factors play a role. Too hot or too cold temperatures increase the chances of developing cramps.






      some muscle spasms may be related to an underlying medical condition, such as:

      Electrolyte or vitamins deficiency.

      vessels obstruction.

      diabetes,
      thyroid dysfunction,
      or low blood sugar.





      Muscle spasms can also be the side effect of some medications,
      like statins, medicines used to lower cholesterol levels.
      antipsychotics,
      diuretics and birth control pills.

      Too much caffeine or alcohol can be factors for muscle cramps.

      If your leg spasms wake you up at night, this condition is called nocturnal leg cramps. Such a condition is more often linked to the nervous system, and not vessels obstruction.







      To stop leg cramps immediately, you should forcefully stretch the affected muscle, which will normally promote rapid relief.

      Cold pads, or warm pads can reduce the severity of pain.
      A warm bath promotes relaxation of the muscles.
      A gentle rub can also provide relief.






      after the cramp occurs, you can implement some of the following measures to prevent this condition from happening again:

      Drink enough water to be adequately hydrated.

      Limit the intake of alcohol and caffeine.






      Consuming enough protein, is vital for the muscle tissues to repair themselves properly.

      Eat a healthy diet, or supplements to replace a deficiency in calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Bananas are rich in some of these minerals.

      Some studies, showed a particular benefit of vitamin B6, in reducing the occurrence of leg cramps of unknown causes.





      To prevent muscle cramps from happening during an activity, take the time to stretch and warm up the targeted muscle group, then gradually increase the activity, and remain well hydrated all the time.

      To treat Muscle cramps with a known cause, we should treat the underlying problem first to resolve the recurring muscle spams.




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      What is tinnitus? Causes, diagnosis and treatments.

      What is tinnitus? Causes, diagnosis and treatments.

       

      What is tinnitus? Causes, diagnosis and treatments.

       


      That sound happens without any external source being present.

      This condition is rarely a serious health problem, but one in five affected people has severe tinnitus, that interferes with their daily activities.

      Do you remember experiencing this sound?

      Almost everyone has had tinnitus for a short time after being exposed to extremely loud noise.

      It often gets resolved within a few seconds.

      Tinnitus can happen to one, or both ears at the same time.

      It can vary in intensity.

      some people experience it for more than six months, and this is known as chronic tinnitus.

      About 50 to 60 million people in the United States suffer from chronic tinnitus, more men than women have this medical condition.

      Tinnitus is often the result of damage to the sensory cells in the auditory system.

      Normal aging is a known cause of tinnitus. Other causes include:

      Side effects of medications.

      secondary illnesses.

      Severe anxiety can also cause tinnitus.

      In most cases, The cause of tinnitus remains unknown.

      Your doctor will perform a hearing test, and try to determine if an underlying illness is associated with this condition.

      MRI, and CT scans are also used to help to determine the cause.

      There is no cure for tinnitus, but you may get a relief treatment.

      In chronic cases, the person can receive a cochlear implant which helps to improve hearing.

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      Subscribe to support our channel, like and share with your friends.

      Leave your comment below about your thoughts, questions, or suggestions.

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      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      In a normal situation when you eat a meal your digestive system will break down sugar into a simple form called glucose. Glucose is the main form of energy for our body.

      From the digestive system, glucose gets absorbed into the blood.

      As a result of increased blood glucose levels the beta cells of the pancreas secrete a hormone called insulin.

      The role of insulin is to escort the glucose from the blood vessels into the cells to produce energy.

      Insulin will bind to specific receptors found on the cells this reaction allows the entry of blood glucose into the cells.

      In Type 1 diabetes,
      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      An autoimmune reaction leads to the destruction of beta cells of the pancreas.

      Fewer beta cells mean less secretion of insulin and Less insulin is available to bind to the receptors of the cells this Results in less glucose entering the cells.

      This condition is treated mainly by injections of insulin.

      Type 2 diabetes,

      is caused by a condition called insulin resistance that is when the insulin bind to the receptors, but The cells ignore the insulin. Therefore, glucose cannot enter the cells. The causes of this condition are not well known. Insulin resistance may be reversed with increased physical activity, weight loss, and getting enough sleep.

      In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, glucose stays in the blood for longer than usual, causing abnormally elevated blood glucose levels, also called hyperglycemia.

      The combination of high blood glucose, and a low supply of energy to the cells. are responsible for the signs and symptoms of diabetes, also for the short and long-term complications.

      diabetes type 1 and type 2 Simplified explanation of causes and pathophysiology

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      Risk factors for diabetes mellitus type 2.

      Risk factors for diabetes mellitus type 2.

      Risk factors for diabetes mellitus type 2.

       We are going to discuss the risk factors for diabetes mellitus type 2. For an overview of this disease and prediabetes, make sure to check our previous video.

      They are divided into two groups, the controllable risk factors those that we can modify, and the uncontrollable factors that are out of our control.

      This video aims to inform you so you can alert people who may have diabetes without knowing about it.

      A person at high risk can prevent or delay developing diabetes by adopting a simple, healthier lifestyle.

      Seeking early medical attention can prevent the complications of diabetes and premature death.

      Uncontrollable risk factors include the following:

      Family history, To have a blood-related parent or sibling with diabetes.

      Age, The risk increases proportionally with age and accelerates after the age of 40.

      Ethnicity people of certain ethnicities and races, such as African, Caribbean. Asian and Hispanic.

      Another risk factor is the Women who experience gestational diabetes, they are at 50% risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

      Obesity is one of the leading risks for diabetes type 2. Fat distribution is also an important factor. PEAR and APPLE body shapes increase the chances of metabolic disease. fat accumulation in the abdomen area indicates a greater risk. by losing 7 to 10% of body weight you cut your risk of developing diabetes by 60%.

      Lifestyle is an important factor in increasing the risk or treating diabetes. Exercising less than three times a week for more than 30 minutes each is considered insufficient. The less active the person, the higher the risks.

      An imbalanced diet is another factor, such as too much consumption of rapid glucose and high saturated fat food.

      Adults with Depression are at higher risk of developing type two diabetes.

      Same for an aggressive personality person.

      Having Prediabetes gives a 50% chance of having diabetes type 2 later in life.

      Other controllable factors that can trigger or worsen diabetes include illnesses such as.

      Hypertension.

      Dyslipidemia, a metabolic condition characterized by high level of bad fat and low levels of good fat.
      Pancreatic illness.

      Polycystic ovary syndrome. and thyroid problems.

      Treating other diseases with medications may come with side effects that increases the risk of uncontrolled blood glucose levels and even developing diabetes.

      Some of those medications are.

      Steroids.

      Atypical antipsychotics.

      And Thiazides.

      having multiple risk factors increase the possibilities to develop diabetes. Here is a summary of today's video, you can access it for free on our Pinterest and Facebook page.

      Now we have come to an end. Thank you for joining us in another video covering health-related topics with medical arts officials. Subscribe to support our channel. Like and share with your friends. Leave your comment below about your thoughts, questions, or suggestions.

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