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      Medical and nursing topics — Diabetes type 1

      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      In a normal situation when you eat a meal your digestive system will break down sugar into a simple form called glucose. Glucose is the main form of energy for our body.

      From the digestive system, glucose gets absorbed into the blood.

      As a result of increased blood glucose levels the beta cells of the pancreas secrete a hormone called insulin.

      The role of insulin is to escort the glucose from the blood vessels into the cells to produce energy.

      Insulin will bind to specific receptors found on the cells this reaction allows the entry of blood glucose into the cells.

      In Type 1 diabetes,
      Diabetes Type 1 vs type 2 pathophysiology, simplified explanation.

      An autoimmune reaction leads to the destruction of beta cells of the pancreas.

      Fewer beta cells mean less secretion of insulin and Less insulin is available to bind to the receptors of the cells this Results in less glucose entering the cells.

      This condition is treated mainly by injections of insulin.

      Type 2 diabetes,

      is caused by a condition called insulin resistance that is when the insulin bind to the receptors, but The cells ignore the insulin. Therefore, glucose cannot enter the cells. The causes of this condition are not well known. Insulin resistance may be reversed with increased physical activity, weight loss, and getting enough sleep.

      In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, glucose stays in the blood for longer than usual, causing abnormally elevated blood glucose levels, also called hyperglycemia.

      The combination of high blood glucose, and a low supply of energy to the cells. are responsible for the signs and symptoms of diabetes, also for the short and long-term complications.

      diabetes type 1 and type 2 Simplified explanation of causes and pathophysiology

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      Risk factors for diabetes mellitus type 2.

      Risk factors for diabetes mellitus type 2.

      Risk factors for diabetes mellitus type 2.

       We are going to discuss the risk factors for diabetes mellitus type 2. For an overview of this disease and prediabetes, make sure to check our previous video.

      They are divided into two groups, the controllable risk factors those that we can modify, and the uncontrollable factors that are out of our control.

      This video aims to inform you so you can alert people who may have diabetes without knowing about it.

      A person at high risk can prevent or delay developing diabetes by adopting a simple, healthier lifestyle.

      Seeking early medical attention can prevent the complications of diabetes and premature death.

      Uncontrollable risk factors include the following:

      Family history, To have a blood-related parent or sibling with diabetes.

      Age, The risk increases proportionally with age and accelerates after the age of 40.

      Ethnicity people of certain ethnicities and races, such as African, Caribbean. Asian and Hispanic.

      Another risk factor is the Women who experience gestational diabetes, they are at 50% risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

      Obesity is one of the leading risks for diabetes type 2. Fat distribution is also an important factor. PEAR and APPLE body shapes increase the chances of metabolic disease. fat accumulation in the abdomen area indicates a greater risk. by losing 7 to 10% of body weight you cut your risk of developing diabetes by 60%.

      Lifestyle is an important factor in increasing the risk or treating diabetes. Exercising less than three times a week for more than 30 minutes each is considered insufficient. The less active the person, the higher the risks.

      An imbalanced diet is another factor, such as too much consumption of rapid glucose and high saturated fat food.

      Adults with Depression are at higher risk of developing type two diabetes.

      Same for an aggressive personality person.

      Having Prediabetes gives a 50% chance of having diabetes type 2 later in life.

      Other controllable factors that can trigger or worsen diabetes include illnesses such as.

      Hypertension.

      Dyslipidemia, a metabolic condition characterized by high level of bad fat and low levels of good fat.
      Pancreatic illness.

      Polycystic ovary syndrome. and thyroid problems.

      Treating other diseases with medications may come with side effects that increases the risk of uncontrolled blood glucose levels and even developing diabetes.

      Some of those medications are.

      Steroids.

      Atypical antipsychotics.

      And Thiazides.

      having multiple risk factors increase the possibilities to develop diabetes. Here is a summary of today's video, you can access it for free on our Pinterest and Facebook page.

      Now we have come to an end. Thank you for joining us in another video covering health-related topics with medical arts officials. Subscribe to support our channel. Like and share with your friends. Leave your comment below about your thoughts, questions, or suggestions.

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      What are autoimmune diseases?

      What are autoimmune diseases?

       Autoimmune diseases!?

      An increasing threat to our quality of life

      Rheumatoid arthritis
      Vitiligo
      Some most common thyroid diseases
      Are all examples of autoimmune diseases

      As we know :
      A healthy immune system is the wall of defense against disease and infection.

      But if the immune system malfunctions, it mistakenly attacks healthy cells, tissues, and organs.

      These attacks can affect any part of your body,
      weakening bodily function and shorten your life expectancy!

      Autoimmune disease is an abnormal condition caused by the adaptive autoimmune response attacking the body's cells as if they were a virus.

      These conditions are becoming more and more common.

      The National Institutes of Health (NIH) estimates that 23.5 million Americans are affected by autoimmune diseases.
      Stats of 2017 approx. 7% of Americans

      Unfortunately, the overall number of cases of autoimmune diseases is rising for unknown reasons!

      Women are disproportionately affected compared to men.
      Some diseases such as lupus affect ten times more women than men.

      Here are the key points of how autoimmune diseases occur

      Dysfunction of the immune system will result in activation of T cells or B cells or both,
      These functions are typically reserved for invading microbes into our bodies.

      Autoimmune reactions usually happen in the absence of an ongoing infection or other discernible cause.

      Cytotoxic T-cells directly attack the target cells and lead to their apoptosis.
      Phenomena are Also called programmed cell death.

      B-cells secret Autoantibodies that also cause damage through several mechanisms. One of them is the secretion of inflammatory cytokines.

      An example of an autoimmune dysfunction is Rheumatic fever (RF)

      Rheumatic fever represents an autoimmune response triggered by a streptococcal infection, also called strep throat.

      RF can be prevented if strep throat is diagnosed early and treated adequately.

      Scientists identified more than 80 autoimmune diseases.
      Crohn's Disease 1.3% of Americans

      Diabetes Type 1
      1.6 million Americans

      Multiple sclerosis
      1 in every 400 people

      Rheumatoid arthritis
      1.5 million Americans

      We will discuss and explain each of those diseases separately in the upcoming videos.

      Who is at risk of developing autoimmune reactions?
      Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that genetic factors are crucial determinants of susceptibility to autoimmune disease.

      Familial clustering and the rate of concordance for autoimmune disease is higher in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins.

      However, even in a genetically predisposed person, some trigger is usually required for autoreactivity.
      A trigger might be environmental exposure or a change in the internal environment.

      An example of an infection causing autoimmune diseases is Guillain–Barré syndrome.

      Classification of Autoimmune Diseases

      Systemic (as in the case of systemic lupus erythematosus)

      Or Organ-specific (as in the case of type 1 diabetes mellitus).

      However, the distinctions become blurred as the effect of localized autoimmune disorders frequently extends beyond the targeted tissues, indirectly affecting other body organs and systems.

      What are the Symptoms of autoimmune diseases?
      The Clinical presentation of autoimmune disorders is disease-specific and often corresponds with the degree of inflammation and the systems involved.

      Some of the more common symptoms of autoimmune disorders include fatigue, general feeling of being unwell (malaise), dizziness, joint pain, rash, and low-grade fever.

      The diseases may also have flare-ups when they get worse and remissions when symptoms get better or disappear.

      Autoimmune disorders can be challenging to recognize and diagnose as they affect multiple organs, leading to highly variable signs and symptoms that can change in severity over time.

      Laboratory tests performed to diagnose autoimmune disorders depend on the particular disease the health practitioner suspects.

      An investigation usually includes blood tests for one or more autoantibodies.
      Tests for inflammation such as C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Give a general idea about the presence of inflammation in the body.

      Are autoimmune diseases curable?
      Unfortunately, most of these diseases have no cure.
      Some require lifelong treatment to ease symptoms.

      Treatment varies based on the specific disease, its stage of presentation, and patient symptoms.
      The primary goal of treatment is to decrease inflammation, minimize symptoms, and lessen the potential for relapse.

      Sometimes doctors prescribe corticosteroids or other drugs that reduce your immune response.

      To identify an active disease, we need reproducible and reliable serologic and clinic methods to assess the risk of each autoimmune disease.

      For example, the use of the American College of Rheumatology criteria for a response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis allows clinicians to compare the efficacy of various drugs in different trials.

      Will A.I. and new technologies help us become more efficient in managing autoimmune diseases? We will discuss this in another video.

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