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      Cardiac System - Cardiac Cycle

      Cardiac System - Cardiac Cycle

      How is the circulatory system structured ?

      What are the components of the circulatory system?

      What is the cardiovascular system ?

      Where is the heart located?

      What vessels drain blood in the right atrium?

      What valve is situated between the right atrium and the right ventricle?

      What is the function of the valve?

      What keeps the valves intact in place?

      Where does the right ventricle receive blood from? and where does it pump it to?

      What are the pulmonary circuits / circulation?

      What is the role of the left atrium?

      What valve is situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle?

      What is the role of the left ventricle?

      How important is the role of the left ventricle?

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      CABG - Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

      CABG - Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

      Coronary artery bypass surgery also called coronary artery bypass grafting or (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat coronary Artery disease.

      The coronary arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood to your heart. The blood in these arteries supplies oxygen and nutrients to your heart.

      There are two coronary arteries: a left and a right coronary artery, each of which is further divided into fine branches.

      Healthy coronary arteries are smooth and elastic. However, these arteries, can become narrowed and hardened over time due to the buildup of fatty deposits known as plaques. This process is known as atherosclerosis.

      People with atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries are said to have coronary artery disease (CAD).

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      Cardiac transplants - heart transplantation

      Cardiac transplants - heart transplantation

      Heart Transplantation

      The area of organ transplantation has progressed significantly over the last few decades,

      Yes, you can get a new heart and live for many more years!

      So, What is heart transplantation?
      It is a surgical transplant procedure to replace a failing heart with a healthier donor heart.

      or severe coronary artery disease when other medical or surgical treatments have failed

      Heart transplant rates have been growing exponentially.

      And there are more people on the waiting list now than is the organ availability.

      About 3,500 heart transplants were performed in the U.S. in 2019.

      Heart transplants are among the most complicated procedures.


      When was heart transplantation invented?

      Christiaan Barnard, who was born in 1922, established a successful open-heart surgery program, and with his team,

      performed the world's first human-to-human heart transplant operation on 3 December 1967

      Although the first heart transplant patient survived only 18 days,

      And four of the first 10 patients survived for more than one year,
      two living for 13 and 23 years respectively.

      This relative success amid many failures worldwide did much
      to generate guarded optimism that heart transplantation would eventually become a viable therapeutic option.

      From 1968 to 1983, Chris Barnard and his team continued to make significant contributions to organ transplantation, notably the development of heterotopic heart transplants.

      Today, heart transplantation has become a relatively routine and commonplace procedure.

      In general, the indication of elective heart transplantation:

      End-stage heart failure, patients who have disabling symptoms requiring mechanical circulatory support and inotropic support despite optimal medical management

      non compensated heart failure affecting the quality of life

      Urgent referral for a heart transplant is indicated in some cases
      Refractory cardiogenic shock despite maxed out inotropes
      persistent requirement of mechanical circulatory support

      contre indications for a heart transplant
      Unfortunately, many patients with advanced heart failure who meet the indications for a heart transplant may not be able to get it as they have one of the following contraindications :

      active infection

      chronic liver disease

      other severe medical conditions that compromise the quality of life despite a usually functional heart

      There is a limited supply of heart donors, so the criteria are relatively strict.

      How is the surgery performed?
      The key equipment needed is a well-preserved donor heart and an eligible recipient.

      Ideally, a donated heart has only 4-6 hours to be transplanted
      Cardiopulmonary bypass is required during the procedure.

      The whole surgery is carried under general anesthesia.

      How long does a heart transplantation surgery take?
      A heart transplant surgery procedure takes approximately four hours.

      During the procedure, the patient is aided by a heart-lung machine for blood circulation throughout the body.

      What is the survival rate for heart transplant patients?
      Approximately 85-90% of heart transplant patients live up to one year after their surgery.

      With improvements in medications suppressing the immune system and preventing all kinds of infection, the survival rate among heart transplant patients has increased.

      The annual death rate after one year is 4%.

      Both early and late complications can fail heart transplants.

      Hence, careful supervision is needed in the immediate post-operative period as well as years after transplant.


      An integrated interprofessional team is involved in the process, starts with the first check-up and continues with post-operative follow-ups.

      A cardiologist, cardiothoracic surgeon, trained nursing staff, and pharmacist well trained with titration and side effects of immunosuppressants can significantly improve heart transplantation outcomes.

      Risks of heart transplant
      Besides the risks of having open-heart surgery, which include bleeding, infection, and blood clots, risks of a heart transplant include :

      Rejection of the donor's heart
      Primary graft failure
      Medication side effects

      The immunosuppressants the patient takes for the rest of their life can cause severe kidney damage and other problems.

      This group of medications decreases the chances of a donor's heart rejection by the immune system.

      Immunosuppressants decrease the ability to fight infection.

      and can also increase the risk of developing cancer

      How much does cardiac transplantation cost?

      Have you ever thought about how much this surgery costs, even though the heart is taken from a dead person and therefore typically free of cost?

      A heart transplant is one of the most expensive types of surgeries.

      It costs approximately $1,500,000 USD for one operation

      But of course, this price varies from place to place.

      Subscribe to our YouTube channel To learn more details about the indications, contraindications, and preparation for heart transplant surgery in our upcoming videos

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