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      Medical and nursing topics

      accessory structures and organs of the digestive system. Liver, pancreas gallbladder salivary glands

      accessory structures and organs of the digestive system. Liver, pancreas gallbladder salivary glands
      We are going to explore the accessory structures that connect to our digestive system. Please note that This is a continuation of our previous video, titled “GI tract.” Which makes up the other component of our digestive system.

      There are Three accessory structures in the oral cavity: the teeth, salivary glands, and tongue.
      And Three other accessory organs in the abdominal cavity connect to the first segment of the small intestine. They are the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.

      In the oral cavity, mechanical digestion of the ingested food starts with mastication achieved by teeth which change the structure of the food to become a bolus. The chemical reaction that occurs via enzymes in the saliva contributes to this transformation also. A 3rd structure is a tongue, which assists in the formation and mostly in swallowing the bolus.

      Teeth are collectively called dentition.
      Generally, at the age of 17, we have Thirty-two permanent teeth arranged in a predictable sequence.
      Human teeth include variation and are called incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.
      Teeth decay is one of the most common diseases. The rate of tooth decay decreases after age 35. However, then problems with the gums may develop.

      Tongue is formed from skeletal muscle. It manipulates the food to assist in chewing and forming the bolus by compressing the partly digested materials.
      thousands of chemoreceptors on the surface of the tongue recognize the variety of tastes like salty, sour, bitter, sweet, savory

      The salivary glands are three pairs of structures that secrete their saliva via linked ducts to the oral cavity.
      The parotid glands are located in front of the ears produce watery serous liquid carrying salts and enzymes. Secrete about 25-30% of the saliva.
      The SUBMANDIBULAR glands, also called SUBMAXILLARY, located below the jaw secrete watery serous fluid with some mucus. Produce most of the saliva about 60-70%.
      The sublingual glands are located under the tongue secrete thick, sticky mucus and contain salts and salivary amylase. Contribute only about 3-5% of the total saliva.

      Saliva is 99% composed of water. A small amount of it is continuously produced to ensure that the oral cavity and its structures remain moist and clean.
      Other components in saliva are
      enzymes such as amylase, which breaks down complex carbohydrates.
      Bicarbonate found in saliva helps to maintain a neutral PH.
      Lysozyme and antibodies kill bacteria.
      Other substances are also found, such as electrolytes and MUCIN.

      Three Accessory digestive organs assist in the chemical breakdown of food by secreting their enzymes into the first segment of the small intestine, the duodenum.
      The liver produces and releases its bile into the gallbladder by multiple thin tubes.
      Then the concentrated bile in the gallbladder gets carried through the common bile duct, where it meets the pancreatic duct. These two tubes form the ampulla of Vater.

      The liver is located Underneath the diaphragm.
      It is composed of four lobes, the left, and right, then two other lobes that are found at the inferior angle of the liver are the caudate and the quadrate lobes.
      It receives nutrient-rich blood from the guts via the portal vein makes 75-85% of the blood flow to the liver. The remaining blood flow is supplied by the Hepatic artery.

      The liver carries one of the most diverse functions in our body, ACTS as a gland. It also detoxifies the blood, serves as storage, and contributes to the immune system.
      The liver will be discussed in detail in another video. Today We will focus on its role in the digestive system.
      The liver itself is not necessarily a gland. However, part of its tissues is exocrine glands, which secrete their substances in a cavity. In the case of the liver, it produces and releases its bile in the gallbladder.

      The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac, about 4 inches long.
      The liver drains its bile into the hepatic ducts toward the gallbladder. Concentrated bile of approximately 40 to 60ml is on standby for the next fatty meal.
      After a meal, the gallbladder squeezes the stored bile into the intestine to digest fat and enhance the absorption of liposoluble vitamins.

      Cholecystectomy is a surgical operation consist of the removal of the gallbladder.
      In a post-cholecystectomy, Instead of concentrating the bile in the gallbladder, the bile flows directly into the intestine anytime the liver produces it.
      Not as much bile will be secreted after ingesting a meal, but enough to allow digestion.

      The pancreas is a soft 6 inches long organ situated behind the stomach and is connected by a duct to the duodenum.
      It is divided into four parts, the head, neck, body, and tail.
      Similar to the liver, the pancreas performs both functions as endocrine and exocrine secretions. The exocrine cells occupy the majority of the pancreas. They serve digestion by secreting enzymes such as lipase, trypsin, and amylase. Bicarbonate is also produced and released by the pancreas. The secretions are collectively called pancreatic juice.

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      GI tract anatomy and physiology, 3d, gut bacteria, digestive system components, function and process

      GI tract anatomy and physiology, 3d, gut bacteria, digestive system components, function and process

      Gastro Intestinal tract anatomy and physiology, 3D footage, detailed illustrations. What are the two main parts of the digestive system? What is the alimentary canal? What are the accessory structures of the digestive system? How does the digestive system work? What are the functions of the digestive system? What are the steps of the digestive system? What are the functions of the mouth ? stomach? and intestine? What path do food, water and medications follow in the GI tract? What is the digestive process? What structures / organs make up the digestive system? Which part of the digestive system are water and alcohol absorbed? What is a capsule endoscopy of the GI tract? What is the GI/Gastrointestinal tract? In this video, the digestive system is explained & it includes : Digestive system diagrams "labeled" Digestive system 3d footage Individual illustrations of digestive system organs

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      PTSD - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - Definition, Symptoms, epidemiology, causes, treatment. DSM-5



      What is PTSD? 

      What is the prevalence of PTSD/Post traumatic stress disorder? 

      What are the signs and symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder/PTSD? 

      How to diagnose PTSD, what are the criteria? (DSM-5)

      What are the causes and risk factors of PTSD/post traumatic stress disorder? 

      How to treat PTSD?


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      Panic disorder & Panic attack


      What is a panic attack? What is a panic disorder? What is the difference between panic attack and panic disorder? What is the prevalence of panic attack? What is the prevalence of panic disorder? What are the signs and symptoms of panic attack and panic disorder? What are the causes and risk factors of panic disorder? How to diagnose panic disorder? (DSM-5) How to treat panic disorder? This 3 minutes video includes some additional self-help methods to manage panic attacks.

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      OCD- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, definition, examples, causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatments

      OCD- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, definition, examples, causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatments

      What is OCD/Obsessive-compulsive Disorder? What do obsession and compulsions mean? What is the prevalence of OCD? What are the signs and symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive disorder? What are the causes and risk factors of OCD? How to diagnose OCD/obsessive-compulsive disorder? (based on DSM-V) What are the chances of curing Obsessive-Compulsive disorder? How to treat OCD? Obsessive-compulsive disorder is similar to other mental illnesses, It can go hidden for years before people seek help and get a proper diagnosis.

      Obsessions are recurrent intrusive, unwanted thoughts. Typically they produce anxiety or distress, which leads to repetitive behavioral acts called compulsions.

      MIKE is sitting in his home office when a random image of an intruder flashes into his mind. He tries to avoid it, and he continues to work. It is not a problem to this point. Sometimes this image will flash again. He checks the backyard and locks the house door. Then he goes back to his office work to resume his tasks.

      What if this image invades his mind again and again in more intense forms? He starts developing anxiety that gets out of control and leads to compulsive behaviors such as running to check the backyard multiple times, the basement a few more times, retightening the locks on the doors, and a growing list of reactions to ease the anxiety. All of that is happening while MIKE knows no one else is there, and now he cannot finish his work tasks on time.

      The estimated lifetime prevalence at 2.3% of the united states population. Females are more likely to suffer from OCD than males. In general, OCD Cases may start in childhood. 75% of cases onset are earlier than the age of 30.

      The recurrence and severity of obsessions and compulsions vary among people.
      Obsessions can be a thought such as stabbing someone, an image of a disaster, or an urge like jumping in front of a moving truck.
      Compulsions may manifest as behavioral or mental acts, and they can become rituals.
      They range from washing hands too often despite the formation of dermatitis, can lead to suicidal events, and severe depressions if no professional intervention is offered.

      the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are not fully known.
      Increased risk is associated with Genetics by running the disorder from a parent to the child.
      Environmental factors play a role, includes bullying. Compulsions are learned behaviors that can become rituals after experiencing stressful life events.
      And not last, abnormally low levels of Serotonin in the brain may cause OCD.

      Four criteria as per DSM 5 are required to qualify for a diagnosis of OCD. Here is a simplified version of the points.
      ONE - Presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both.
      TWO - those obsessions and behaviors are time-consuming in that they impair normal daily life activities.
      THREE - above signs are not the result of consuming a drug or medicine.
      FOUR - Another disorder does not better explain the signs and symptoms. (e.g. of bipolar disease, ADHD are among others)

      OCD is a resisting disorder, but improvement happens in 75 to 85% of patients after proper therapy.
      the treatment is a combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy and medications.
      CBT is the treatment of choice. It helps the patient recognize and change their thought patterns and behaviors.

      Some medications, especially antidepressants that influence the serotonin system, have been found to decrease the symptoms of OCD. These medications are only available under a prescription, given their potential side effects. It usually takes several weeks for this group of medications to deliver adequate effects.

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